GHB drug or Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (C4H8O3) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant that is commonly referred to as a “club drug” or “date rape” drug. IT is abused by teens and young adults at bars, parties, clubs and “raves” (all night dance parties), and is often placed in alcoholic beverages. Euphoria, increased sex drive, and tranquility are reported positive effects of GHB abuse.1,2 Negative effects may include sweating, loss of consciousness (reported by 69 percent of users), nausea, hallucinations, amnesia, and coma, among other adverse effects.
What is GHB
Xyrem (sodium oxybate), a brand name prescription drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002 for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and recurring daytime sleep attacks. It is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate. Xyrem is a highly regulated drug in the U.S. It is a Schedule III controlled substance, and requires patient enrollment in a restricted access program.
4-hydroxybutanoic acid is also a naturally-occurring metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) found in the brain. The naturally-occurring metabolite Gamma Hydroxybutyrate is present in much lower concentrations in the brain than those levels found when the drug is abused. As a result of fermentation, natural GHB may also be found in small but insignificant quantities in some beers and wines.
High doses of BUY GHB ONLINE, even without other illicit substances or alcohol, may result in profound sedation, seizures, coma, severe respiratory depression and death. Emergency department episodes related to the use of club drugs usually involve the use of multiple substances, such as marijuana, cocaine, and other club drugs, such as methamphetamine, Ecstasy, buy lsd online, 5 meo dmt, 4 aco dmt, buy mushrooms, ghb, ghb drug, where to buy ghb, or Rohypnol.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug. It is a precursor to GABA, glutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas, and it acts on the GHB receptor and it is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor.
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic and as a treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism.It is also used illegally as an intoxicant, to try to increase athletic performance, and as a date rape drug and as a recreational drug. It is commonly used in the form of a salt, such as sodium γ-hydroxybutyrate or potassium γ-hydroxybutyrate .
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate has at least two distinct binding sites. in the central nervous system. 4-hydroxybutanoic acidis an agonist at the newly characterized GHB receptor, which is excitatory. It is also a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor, which is inhibitory.
However, at therapeutic doses. It reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABAB receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects. 4-hydroxybutanoic acidsedative effects are blocked by GABAB antagonists. As the GABA system is the most prolific inhibitory receptor set within the brain, its modulation results in the sedating (or calming effects) of GHB on the nervous system. While research into the GHB receptor is limited, there is evidence that activation of the 4-hydroxybutanoic acid receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter. Drugs that selectively activate the GHB receptor cause absence seizures in high doses, as do Gamma Hydroxybutyrate and GABAB agonists.
Activation of both the GHB receptor and GABAB is responsible for the addictive profile of GHB. It’s effect on dopamine release is biphasic. This means that while low concentrations stimulate dopamine release via the GHB receptor, higher concentrations inhibit dopamine release via GABAB receptors. After an initial phase of inhibition, dopamine release is then increased via the GHB receptor.
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate induces the accumulation of either a derivative of tryptophan or tryptophan itself, possibly by increasing tryptophan transport across the blood–brain barrier. GHB-induced stimulation may be due to this increase in tryptophan transport to the brain and in its uptake by serotonergic cells. As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by high doses of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate may be involved in certain neuropharmacological events induced by GHB administration.
These findings may explain the paradoxical mix of sedative and stimulatory properties of GHB drug as well as the so-called “rebound” effect reported by individuals using 4-hydroxybutanoic acidas a sleeping agent wherein they awake suddenly after several hours of GHB-induced deep sleep. Over time, the concentration of GHB drug in the system decreases below the threshold for significant GABAB receptor activation and activates predominantly the GHB drug receptor, leading to wakefulness.
- Respiratory depression – In cases of overdoses, many report experiencing an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea.
- Stomach cramps
- Motor control loss
- Skin flushing
- Muscle cramps – Abrupt discontinuation of frequent use can also result in muscle cramps and spasms.
- Optical sliding
- Increased salivation – Increased salivation is very common.
- Pupil dilation
- Pupil dilation
- Sleepiness & Wakefulness – At very low dosages, it can make one tired, while common doses are primarly wakefullness-promoting. High doses can lead to feelings of being extremely sleepy.
- Analysis suppression
- Anxiety suppression
- Cognitive euphoria – GBL is far more euphoric than alcohol or benzodiazepines, more akin to Gabapentinoids.
- Motivation enhancement & Motivation suppression – As with other coinciding effects, common doses can lead to greater motivation whilst high doses generally result in lethargy.
- Increased libido – This is a very pronounced and documented effect with the drug, when compared with most other depressants.
- Increased music appreciation
- Spatial disorientation – Disorientation is very common in dark areas.
- Suggestibility enhancement
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can suddenly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following list includes some known dangerous combinations (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Nitrous – Both substances potentiate the ataxia and sedation caused by the other and can lead to unexpected loss of consciousness at high doses. While unconscious, vomit aspiration is a risk if not placed in the recovery position. Memory blackouts are likely.
- Amphetamines – Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
- MDMA – Large amounts of GHB/GBL may overwhelm the effects of MDMA on the comedown.
- Cocaine – Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest. Likewise the G can wear off and leave a dangerous concentration of Cocaine behind.
- Ketamine – Both substances cause ataxia and bring a risk of vomiting and unconsciousness. If the user falls unconscious while under the influence there is a severe risk of vomit aspiration if they are not placed in the recovery position.
- MXE – Both substances cause ataxia and bring a risk of vomiting and unconsciousness. If the patient falls unconscious while under the influence there is a severe risk of vomit aspiration if they are not placed in the recovery position.
- DXM – Both substances cause ataxia and bring a risk of vomiting and unconsciousness. If the patient falls unconscious while under the influence there is a severe risk of vomit aspiration if they are not placed in the recovery position. This combination is hard to predict.
- PCP – Details of this combination are not well understood but PCP generally interacts in an unpredictable manner.
- Alcohol – Even in very low doses this combination rapidly leads to memory loss, severe ataxia and unconsciousness. There is a high risk of vomit aspiration while unconscious.
- Opioids – The two substances potentiate each other strongly and unpredictably, very rapidly leading to unconsciousness. While unconscious, vomit aspiration is a risk if not placed in the recovery position.
- Tramadol – The sedative effects of this combination can lead to dangerous respiratory depression.
- Benzodiazepines – The two substances potentiate each other strongly and unpredictably, very rapidly leading to unconsciousness. While unconscious, vomit aspiration is a risk if not placed in the recovery position.